COMMERCIALLY CULTIVATED MUSHROOMS
Home cultivated shiitake developing over approximately 24 hours. Mushroom cultivation has a long history.
Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon and the button mushroom. This species also includes the portobello and crimini mushrooms.
Agaricus campestris - Meadow mushroom
Auricularia polytricha or Auricularia auricula-judae (Tree ear mushrooms), two closely related species of jelly fungi that are commonly used in Chinese cuisine.
Flammulina velutipes, the "winter mushroom", also known as enokitake in Japan
Hypsizygus tessulatus (also Hypsizygus marmoreus), called shimeji in Japanese, it is a common variety of mushroom available in most markets in Japan. Known as "Beech mushroom" in Europe.
Lentinus edodes, also known as shiitake, oak mushroom. Lentinus edodes is largely produced in Japan, China and South Korea. Lentinus edodes accounts for 10% of world production of cultivated mushrooms. Common in Japan, China, Australia and North America.
Pleurotus species, The oyster mushroom and king trumpet mushroom. Pleurotus mushrooms are the second most important mushrooms in production in the world, 25% of total world production of cultivated mushrooms. Pleurotus mushrooms are world-wide, China is the major producer. Several species can be grown on carbonaceous matter such as straw or newspaper. In the wild they are usually found growing on wood.
- Pleurotus cornucopiae
- Pleurotus eryngii
- Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom)
Sparassis crispa - recent developments have led to this being cultivated in California.
Tremella fuciformis (Snow fungus), another type of jelly fungus that is commonly used in Chinese cuisine.
Tuber species, (the truffle), Truffles belong to the ascomycete grouping of fungi. The truffle fruitbodies develop underground in mycorrhizal association with certain trees e.g. oak, poplar, beech, and hazel. Being difficult to find, trained pigs or dogs are often used to sniff them out for easy harvesting.
- Tuber aestivum (Summer or St. Jean truffle)
- Tuber magnatum (Piemont white truffle)
- Tuber melanosporum (Perigord truffle)
- T.melanosporum x T.magnatum (Khanaqa truffle)
Ustilago maydis (Corn smut), a fungal pathogen of the maize plants. Also called the Mexican truffle, although not a true truffle.
Volvariella volvacea (the "Paddy straw mushroom.") Volvariella mushrooms account for 16% of total production of cultivated mushrooms in the world.